Disasters happen, be they manmade or natural, no corporation or government can ever assume their data and access to their data will be exempt from damage. Disaster recovery is their ability to recover electronic data and data processing to pre-disaster levels in the shortest possible time thru forward planning and setting policy objectives.
Preparing for disasters and knowing that recovery will be possible requires careful analysis of the threats facing a corporation such as earthquakes, terrorism, hacking, staff strikes, electrical failure, even human error, and understanding the consequences for data of each possible situation.
The simple activity of keeping off-site data backups may be all that is required for recovery in smaller corporations and private households, but in larger corporations most responsible IT managers would consider this a basic minimum which would already be provisioned and costed as part of their annual budgets.
Some disasters on the other hand have very little to do with recovering backups, a denial of service attack (DoS) on the corporate website could happen at any time, and all the backups in the world won’t help the corporation with their recovery, instead skilled manpower is needed. This is the sort of disaster that affects a corporation’s ability to use it’s data and communicate with stakeholders, and if not contained quickly affects credibility and stockholder confidence.
Forward planning for eventualities such as DoS attacks and other forms of hacking or viruses often involves contracting third parties for network routing and emergency response. Common network related disasters include hacking, viruses, server and router failure, cable fractures or satellite failure, or any number of other failures in the network loop.
Protecting a corporation from disasters is costly, and often considered a wasted expense until after a major disaster has occurred, and business recovery specialists often complain of the difficulties they face convincing management and staff of the need to work to set procedures.
Equipment and network redundancy plays a large role in mission critical disaster recovery, and may in extreme situations require two or three completely separate systems performing the same task. Many Fortune 500 corporations may not need completely redundant systems that can be brought online almost instantly although this is common in larger financial corporations, and of course large telecommunications operators.
The construction of disaster proof data centers with high levels of redundancy, fire containment, and temporary power generation is often seen as integral to disaster recovery planning, as well as provision of redundant network loops to third parties. Most major corporations and governments allocate as much as 5% of their annual IT budget to disaster recovery planning, a high expense, yet preferable to not continuing in business in the event of catastrophic data loss.
Preparing for every possible contingency would require superhuman effort and unlimited funds however using the Pareto Principle (80-20 rule) and planning in advance for the few disasters that could permanently shut down the corporation is much more affordable, and once these steps are in place the incremental cost of adding more preparedness may not cost that much more.
If it seems like you have a bunch of messy files and you have no idea about what step to take next, then you need to consider getting a database. The database will help you in storing and managing your files with the use of various commands such as SQL statements. With the use of the database, you’ll be able to organize your files according to clusters. This is called “database clustering”. How is database clustering relevant to the database management system?
The database cluster is a program in a database management system that provides users the opportunity to share or keep the files exclusive to themselves. The database cluster, particularly the SQL cluster, was developed in 2004 and was an added feature to the SQL database management system. Database cluster is designed for high-level performance, and users can ensure that this program has a linear scalability.
Know the Features of a Database Cluster
A database cluster has several features that will both give you some advantages and disadvantages. The database cluster has the ability to replicate any shared data. The database cluster utilizes a synchronous replication that allows the data to be copied in multiple nodes upon writing the data. In a database cluster replication, the two copies or replicas can be stored either one at a time or at the same time. The database cluster also has the ability to store data in partitions. This is called the “horizontal data partitioning”. With the database cluster, all data will automatically be stored in several data nodes with the system. The database cluster can also be stored either in the disk or in memory. This is called “hybrid storage”. The data are then stored in memory, while the data is written in the disk asynchronously. This is because of the database cluster’s ability to replicate. In the event when all installations of hardware and software are perfectly in place, the database cluster will not need any shared disk because there are definitely no room for errors and failures.
How to Create a Database Cluster
Before doing anything, you must first create a database cluster or database storage on disk. A database cluster is a collection of databases within a database management system. After initiating the database cluster, the database will be named. For instance, the database is named Template 1. This means that this database will only be used for a created database and, thus, cannot be used for actual work. In the database system, the database cluster can be identified as the data directory, so users can definitely store data anytime, anywhere. But if you want to make a database cluster area, then here are the instructions you should specifically follow:
1. You will initially log in as a root.
2. Create a directory which will act as your database cluster area. Then you should reassign the ownership to the Postgre account, which comes with the database software. For instance, you can use this command – root# mkdir /var/lib/pgsql/data, root# chown postgres /var/lib/pgsql/data.
3. You can log on to your Postgre user account.
In order to start your database cluster, you should place the command, “initdb”. Since the database cluster includes all the files in the database, you’ll need to secure it. The initdb command will therefore restrict unauthorized persons who want to access your data.
Database server is a program that connects the information stored in a database to other computers or computer programs. Most of the database management systems provide this type of function, while others count on the client-server model in order to access the database. The client-server model means that one computer, called the client, requests information from the server, which is the second computer. This is the type of model that most database servers use in order to function. There is also the master-slave model wherein the master or main servers are in a primary location, while the slave servers are considered to be the proxies.
The Purpose of Database Servers
Database servers are usually computers that have multiprocessors as well as disk arrays for storage purposes. This is to ensure that the storage of information is stable enough to avoid any problems during accessing of information as well as storing of data. The purpose of database servers is to make the information available to all relevant users, such as in a company where most employees need to access the same information stored in the database. Database servers don’t simply act as a bridge or connection, but it also sort the information entered by the users. This is quite important since most companies transact with customers everyday. Any modifications done in the database are also read by the server, and it also stores them in its location to be available to other users. This is to facilitate the ease of updates as well as processing of information. The database server is also the one that studies the information loaded into it to be able to generate a report.
Database servers allow multiple computer programs to access the information stored inside it since the servers are the ones that handle the core or central storage. Most database servers require the right kind of hardware in order to handle multiple accessing of information. Since databases are used early on, there are now different versions available. Database servers have also evolved into servers with the ability to handle large numbers of information and with an added feature that present the gathered information to the user in various formats. Among the outputs that database servers generate are web pages. Database servers also allow inputs of orders from customers for ecommerce.
Choosing the Database Server
There are still different types of servers out in the market, and it is best for you to have the knowledge of the uses of each type. Though some of them may have similarities, still, there are differences to be found. There is the difference between database servers, server hardware and the operating system of the server.
When we say server hardware, we are talking about the physical aspect of the server, which is the computer or the machine. The operating system, on the other hand, is the interface that connects the machine to the other applications which also handles the database server. The database server, as we all know, is the one that stores the information.
All in all, a company needs all of these components to make sure that their stored information can be accessed at all times.
Database is a place to store data and has the capability of being accessed by other users whether they are at home, in the office, or anywhere. The databases are normally used by companies that are transacting with customers, businesses, and so on. Databases are great for storing information since they are organized and easy to access. It is also easy to use. Database is composed of forms, tables, rows, columns, fields, labels, and so on. These are necessary since these items are the ones that will help organize any data encoded into the form. Databases can also be altered or edited. There are different kinds of databases each with their own unique operation used. Some of them can also support other kinds of databases.
A database form is the front end of any database since it is here where the user encodes the data to be stored. It is also here where the editing of information happens. The database forms can range from simple to complex. Simple database forms can only have a few items in it, such as the text field and text boxes and so on. Complex databases, on the other hand, can include text boxes, text fields, graphics, and lots more. Though the design of the database forms can be different, its use is still the same. This is where all information are encoded and manipulated before being stored into the database.
The users of databases prefer to interact with the database forms since they are far simpler to understand and to manipulate. The forms are the ones that provide the users with the ability to format the data they wish to store. It is also here that you can see different command buttons that have different functions such as operational functions and so on. A user can have a small skill or understanding of the database, but through the form, they can easily encode the information. Another function of the database forms is that the administrator can limit the interaction of the users with the database. The administrator can create a form where only a select field can be answered by the user.
Designing Database Forms
Database form is also defined as a form that handles most of the data being entered by various users with or without skills in handling databases. The design of the database form will be handled by the programmer or the administrator and will be the only one that has the capability of altering the database itself. This is also done to ensure that only the administrator has the access and has the power to remove databases.
The database form’s design also needs to be easily understood, so users will not have a hard time using it. Designing a database form requires the administrator or the programmer to place the necessary fields for the database. All the fields and labels that you need should already be placed in the form before you start aligning them. This way, you wouldn’t have any trouble designing your database form.
Database is the tool used to store essential information in a single system. The database is significant to those who want have large information on hand. With the use of any database, information will become organized and efficient. That’s why many databases are used to supplement learning in children, to aid in the sharing of files in networks, or to organize information for businesses. But what are its uses as well as its impact on manufacturing and businesses?
Integration of the Database Applications
Today, database is widely use in schools and businesses. To make the database available to majority of users, it is incorporated in some of the computer software available in the market like Microsoft, Macintosh and other open sources. If you have open source software, you probably have two significant database options – the MySql and Postgre SQL. My SQL is the most commonly used open-source application. This type is used in blog software and large sites, but you should be reminded of its limited capacity to handle multiple applications at the same time. On the other hand, the Postgre SQL is smaller but a much stronger and safer tool for multiple applications. Postgre SQL also allows users to have a group of data applications with only a less limiting license.
Microsoft, on the other hand, has a more professional software that deals with your databases. With the use of the Microsoft Access office, users can effectively store, extract and manipulate information. The only drawback of this type is that it only works on Microsoft-powered computers. Another tool users can consider under Microsoft is the Microsoft SQL server, which definitely provides you with standardized tools for easy and efficient production.
File maker developed by Macintosh will definitely suit those who want a user-friendly database application. The File maker is fully functional and can hold a large amount of information. But if you’re going to use the File maker, you must have a Macintosh-operating system.
Database Applications for Manufacturing and Business
Most companies integrate the use of their databases to the manufacturing of their products. With the use of the database access, manufacturing not only became cost-efficient but products are of high quality as well. The database also allows businessmen to decide more accurately, especially on the most significant part of their businesses. As a result of easier information access, maintaining the standards and decision-making also became easy.
Database applications are significant when it comes to planning for new products as planning requires the integration of ideas between the engineering, the marketing, the production as well as the customers. The use of these database applications also allowed its users to have a free-flow communication, and as result, conceptualization of new products can be planned wisely. The manufacture engineering database applications allows users to implement new product designs as well as recognize the cost of your engineering changes.
Using the “Cost Management” and “Financial Analyzer” database application, cost management can also become organized, especially since each product will be monitored under strict quality control. Database applications for manufacturing and businesses will surely make the lives of both employers and employees easier and far more structured.
Microsoft Office Access, also formerly known as Microsoft Access, is the newest addition to the software management tools provided by the Microsoft System last 2007. Microsoft Office Access is a combination of the Microsoft database engine system with software development tools as well as graphical user interface. Microsoft Office Access presents many productive tools to help software developers and architects build new and simple applications.
History of Microsoft Office Access
The first Microsoft Access was developed in November 1992, while the second version (version 1.1) was released in May 1993 with the promise of compatibility with other Microsoft programs. The third version of Microsoft Access, the version 2.0, was an improvement over the first two, but it requires a bigger memory space. For version 2.0, the minimum operating system should be at least 6 MB RAM with a backup memory of 8 MB, so 14 MB is the recommended space for the Microsoft Access version 2.0.
While this software had taken Microsoft into new heights, Microsoft Access at that time had experienced a major downfall. Since the operating systems at that time were not that reliable, incidences of data corruption were noted, so Microsoft Office Access underwent drastic changes to correct the mistake. With the phasing out of the Windows 95 and 98, the Microsoft Office Access has been enhanced.
The Features and Uses of Microsoft Office Access
The best thing about using the Microsoft Office Access is its reliability with other database programs. It has been designed in conformity with the SQL (structured query language). SQL are queries that can be viewed graphically in Access. These SQL statements can be developed in the Microsoft Office Access and can be used in Macros and VBA modules. The Macros and VBA modules are primarily used for developing programming forms and logics. Furthermore, Microsoft Office Access has compatibility with ADP files. ADP files include objects that emphasize forms, reports, procedures and tables.
The Microsoft Office Access is highly recommended to those who are in the professional applications development. Software developers can use Microsoft Office Access in creating prototypes for people who are always on-the-go like businessmen and salesmen. Microsoft Access also allows the use of the database on an area network by connecting the program to the Microsoft Terminal Services, which is the Internet access for Microsoft programs.
Microsoft Office Access is also used for architectural purposes. This program has a Microsoft SQL server that provides access to create all objects in the underlying server, and there are still plans to upgrade the Microsoft Office Access so as to make it more compatible with other significant servers.
Microsoft Office Access is also used for query development. All queries, tables and modules can be developed using the access program. Access uses a Query Design Grid, which is a graphical interface that allows users to create queries without asking the consent of the SQL programming. Moreover, Access allows users to manipulate SQL without any hassles.
The use of Microsoft Office Access will definitely create a more dependable environment for businesses.
Microsoft SQL Server was developed by Microsoft in the year 2005. The Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system that has two main languages – the MS-SQL and T-SQL. The T-SQL or the Transact Structured Query Language is basically a tool that users can use to manage SQL servers.
Although there are many SQL servers available in the market, Microsoft SQL server has provided the best services that money can buy, but what is the significance of Microsoft SQL Server to developers, businesses and other fields.
The Features of Microsoft SQL Server Database
The Microsoft SQL server has a protocol layer which implements the external interface of the SQL server. All the procedures done in the SQL server is transferred via the Microsoft format called the “Tabular Data Stream” or TDS. The TDS is primarily used to transfer data from the SQL server to the client.
The next feature most users would definitely enjoy is the capacity of the SQL server to store data. Although the main purpose of the SQL server is to store data, you should consider these primary types of applications that most SQL serves support. These three types include the Char (character strings), VarChar (Variable Character Language), and binary as well as text. The SQL server also allows users to store as well as extract and manipulate data from databases.
SQL server also supports buffer pages in order to reduce disc I/O. Any eight-kilobyte page can be considered as the buffer, and the SQL server allows users to manage the available buffers. These buffers are stored in a buffer cache, and the cache is managed by a “buffer manager”.
Moreover, SQL server is also used for major transactions as well as for logging. SQL server will ensure that any changes made inside the database, either complete or not, will not be removed from the system. With the use of these SQL servers, transactions will be ensured safe and secured. Furthermore, the SQL server will ensure that all data are maintained with integrity.
Another important factor to consider when using the Microsoft SQL server is its ability to allow multiple users to use the same database concurrently. With the use of the Microsoft SQL server, users will have access to confidential data without jeopardizing its integrity as well as transparency. Users can utilize locks to maintain the confidentiality of their data. With the use of the lock manager, sharing of data will not be allowed unless permitted by the owner. The lock manager will be responsible for all data released to other networks.
Other Tools Used in Microsoft SQL Server Database
One of the tools that come along with the Microsoft SQL Server is the SQLCMD. This is an application that reveals the management capabilities of the Microsoft SQL server. The SQLCMD allows users to input certain procedures in the command prompt. It can also be used for scripting languages, which is an essential part of a SQL server.
The Microsoft Visual Studio is also a supporting program of the Microsoft SQL server. It is used as a data designer as well as a debug code that is executed by the SQL CLR. Moreover, the Microsoft Server Management Studio acts as object explorer and script editors to maximize the potential of the SQL server.
MySQL is one of the well-known relational database systems. It is owned by a Swedish company called MySQL AB, which became a subsidiary of Sun Microsystems in 2008, recently acquired by Oracle. It is widely used in web applications and also acts as a database component. It is commonly used for open source bug tracking tools such as Bugzilla. MySQL became well known due to the popularity of PHP and Ruby on Rails, which were often combined with it. High-traffic websites such as Google, YouTube, Facebook, Wikipedia and Nokia use it for data storage. It works on a variety of system platform such as Mac OS, Linux, Windows XP, Solaris and Symbian. Programmers can access its libraries which are available in different programming languages. They can use the command line tool included in the database. GUI administration tools can also be downloaded from the MySQL website. There are also free noncommercial tools that are available for use.
Two Variants of MySQL Database
MySQL has two variants: the MySQL Community Server and Enterprise Server, which shares a common code base and a host of features. This includes a cross platform support, cursors, triggers, stored procedures, independent storage engines, strict mode, updatable views, query caching, and partial Unicode support. Its distinguishing features that separate it from other relational database systems are multiple storage engines which allow the user to choose the most effective table for application, native storage systems, partner and community developed storage engines, custom storage engines and commit grouping. Starting with version 5.1, the product will be released with only one server package. A server binary will be included for debugging information. Unlike other RDBMS, MySQL was first released late in 1995. After three years, the version for windows was released. This followed a series of releases which featured developments. Version 4 had unions; version 4.1 had R and B-trees, prepared statements and subqueries, version 5 had cursors, triggers, views, XA transactions and stored procedures; and version 5.1 had an event scheduler, plugin API, server log tables, row-based replication and partitioning. Future releases of the product will include foreign key, additional Unicode characters, support for parallelization and new transactional storage engine called Falcon. These features will be included in the version 6 and 6.1. The MySQL server is a free software under the general public license and buyers have access to binaries through subscriptions. These binary updated include the latest bug fixes. Buyers of the MySQL enterprise are provided with support ranging from performance tuning to advice on system architecture. The main problem of the product nowadays is that it is prone to crashing. Wrong result bugs appear and take a long time to fix. The server also performs poorly with data warehousing.
Future of MySQL Database
MySQL has been widely used and known because it is a free software, and the company was able to address its issues when they released version 5. Nowadays, it is still popular with web applications and is still being developed for better efficiency. The database may not be as big as other competitors, but MySQL has remained popular due to its accessibility. Let’s what Oracle is up to now…
The database index is defined as a database structure whose primary function is to make the operations on a database table faster. Creating a database index requires one or a number of columns on a table for faster accessing of records in a database.
Database indexes only occupy a small part of the disk memory since they only contain important key fields and discard the other fields within the table. This way, the index can be stored even though the database holds a large number of data. Index can also be defined as either non-unique or unique, where unique index functions as a table constraint where it stops replication of rows in an index.
When it comes to relational databases, the index is considered to be a part of table of the database. The power of the database index is sometimes extended by the other types of databases through creating them within functions or expressions in coding. An example of this is upper (first_name) where the index will only store entries whose first name is in the upper case. Filtered index is another option that is used in databases. The function of the filtered index is to include the data if and only if it passes a criteria designated by the administrator.
Simply put, the index sorts data using key fields or values. Another description of a database index is that it refers to a key value in the right field of the table and is capable of retrieving data in a fast way as long as you know the right search arguments.
Using Database Indexes
To make the most out of the database index here are some tips that you can follow. First is to use a unique element in the index first. Make sure that the element that you will be using has the highest or largest value. This will help you find the page that you are looking for in a faster way. Make sure that the index that you will be creating is small. This will enable you to find pages faster, unlike having a large index. Large indexes can be used for those whose functions are of frequent use. For those who are using small tables, it is better for you not to use indexes as this will only slow down the searching process. It is better to allow the database search all of its record, rather than using indexes. Take note that database index slows down any operations done to the database. This includes deleting or adding data in the database. This is because, once you alter a record in the database, the index also needs to be updated. The index that you will be creating should be a key value that is not updated all the time. This will help your database retrieve data faster.
Types of Database Indexes
There are four types of database index, and these are bitmap index, dense index, sparse index and covering index. In bitmap index, most of the data is stored by bulk in bitmap format. Dense index is a file containing a pair of key and pointer for each record it has in a file. Sparse index is almost the same as the dense index, but it uses keys and pointers for each block in a data file.